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Effortlessly Manipulate Strings in Python


Python Tutorial: String -1 in Python

Strings are an essential data type in Python that represent sequences of characters. In this tutorial, we will explore various string operations and manipulations in Python, focusing on the negative indexing technique.

Basics of Strings in Python

Before diving into negative indexing, let’s first understand the basics of strings in Python.

Creating a String

To create a string in Python, we enclose the desired characters inside single quotes or double quotes. For example:

string1 = 'Hello, World!'
string2 = "Python is awesome!"

Accessing Characters in a String

We can access individual characters in a string using indexing. In Python, indexing starts from 0 for the first character, and -1 for the last character. For example:

string = "Python"
print(string[0]) # Output: P
print(string[-1]) # Output: n

String Slicing

String slicing allows us to extract a portion of a string. It is done by specifying the start and end indices, separated by a colon. For example:

string = "Python is awesome"
substring = string[7:10] # Extracting "is"
print(substring) # Output: is

Negative Indexing in Python

Negative indexing in Python allows us to access characters from the end of a string. Instead of starting from 0, we start from -1 for the last character. This technique is useful when we need to access elements from the end.

Accessing Characters with Negative Indexing

Let’s explore how we can access characters using negative indexing:

string = "Python is awesome"
print(string[-1]) # Output: e
print(string[-2]) # Output: m
print(string[-7:-1]) # Output: awesome

In the above example, string[-1] accesses the last character ‘e’, string[-2] accesses the second last character ‘m’, and string[-7:-1] extracts the substring ‘awesome’.

Advantages of Negative Indexing

Negative indexing is particularly useful when we want to access the last few characters of a string, as we can avoid calculating the length of the string. For example:

string = "Python is awesome"
last_three_chars = string[-3:] # Accessing last three characters
print(last_three_chars) # Output: me

The string[-3:] statement extracts the last three characters ‘me’ without explicitly calculating the length of the string.


In this tutorial, we explored the basics of strings in Python and learned about negative indexing. We saw how negative indexing enables us to access characters from the end of a string, making certain operations more convenient. By using detailed, executable sample codes, we hope this tutorial has provided a comprehensive understanding of string -1 in Python.